Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, was a series of government-sanctioned attacks against the Jews of Germany and Austria on November 9-10, 1938. Ninety-six Jews were murdered and 25,000-30,000 were arrested and sent to concentration camps. The damage to property was also extensive: thousands of synagogues were attacked, with 267 burned to the ground. Thousands of homes and businesses destroyed with sledgehammers and axes, leaving the streets covered with shards of broken glass–the origin of the name Kristallnacht. Many historians consider this pogrom to be the beginning of the Final Solution.
Kristallnacht Exhibition: It Came From Within– this online exhibition from Yad Vashem includes video testimony, documents, and photographs.
Kristallnacht: The 1938 Pogroms – this online exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum includes videos, historical photographs, relevant articles, and more.
Map of Destroyed Synagogues in Germany and Austria by Florida Center for Instructional Technology.
The Kristallnacht Page – these resources from the Museum of Tolerance include fact sheets, documents, and eyewitness accounts.
The Pool that was Once a Synagogue – this article by Teddy Weinberger describes the events of Kristallnacht and what remains today.
Kristallnacht: Night of Broken Glass – this video from the Holocaust Resource Center of Buffalo provides an overview of the events of Kristallnacht.
Kristallnacht in Buehl – this archival footage from Yad Vashem depicts the events of Kristallnacht in the city of Buehl, Germany.
80 Years After Kristallnacht: Diarists of the Holocaust – this video from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum includes a compilation of testimonials from Kristallnacht survivors.
More Holocaust Resources from The Lookstein Center
Yom Hashoah Resources – these resources include articles, lesson plans, testimonials, and more.
Holocaust Remembrance After the Survivors – this blog by Martin Herskovitz details different ways to keep the memory of the Holocaust alive, even after many survivors have passed away.
Creating Memory – this arts-based program for Holocaust education includes interactive workshops and a free instructional booklet.
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