Gemara Instruction in Yeshiva High Schools

  • by: HaRav Aharon Lichtenstein ื”ืจื‘ ื“"ืจ ืื”ืจืŸ ืœื™ื›ื˜ื ืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ

This Hebrew article discusses the fundamental role that Gemara plays in Yeshiva high schools, and explores the most effective ways of teaching this crucial aspect.

ื‘ืžื•ืงื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืชื•ื“ืขืช ื›ืœ ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื”ื‘ื ื‘ืฉืขืจื™ื”, ืขื•ืžื“ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื‘ืžืจื›ื–. ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื, ืขืœ ืงืจื‘ื• ื•ืขืœ ื›ืจืขื™ื•, ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ืžืคืจืฉื™ื• ื•ืคื•ืกืงื™ื•, ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื›ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื, ื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืฆื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ื“ืจื›ื• ื•ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื• ืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื”ื˜ื™ืจื•ืŸ ื›ืจื‘ ืžืฉื•ืคืฉืฃ ืขืœ ืืžื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”.

ื ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ื•, ื›ื›ืœืœ, ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช. ืขืœ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื•ืฉืœื•ื—ื•ืชื™ื” ื”ืชืจืคืงื• ืงืžืื™ ื“ืงืžืื™ ื›ื‘ืชืจืื™ ื“ื‘ืชืจืื™-ื’ืื•ื ื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ, ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ ืืฉื›ื ื– ื›ืฉืœ ืกืคืจื“, ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ ืžื–ืจื— ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ื›ืฉืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืคืจื™ืงื”.

ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืกืชืขืจื•, ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ, ืฉื•ื ืื™ื ื• ื›ืฉื‘ืื• ืœืฉืจื•ืฃ ืชื•ืจืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ; ื•ื›ืจื›ื™ื”- “ื’ื ื•ื–ื™ ืืจื•ืŸ/ ื™ืฆื™ืื™ ืœื‘ื•ื‘, ืกืœื•ื™ื˜ื, ืืžืฉื˜ืจื“ื ื•ืคืจื ืงืคื•ืจื˜”- ื”ื ืฉื ื™ืฆื‘ื•, ืžืŸ ื”ืกืชื, ื‘ืคื ื™ ื‘ื™ืืœื™ืง ื›ืฉื‘ื, “ืžื•ืœ ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคืจื™ื”, ืœื”ืชืขืžืช ืขื ืขื‘ืจื• ื•ืขื ื–ืขืžื•. ืืžื ื ื—ื–”ืœ ื”ื ื—ื•, “ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ืฉืœืฉ ืื“ื ืฉื ื•ืชื™ื•, ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื‘ืžืงืจื ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื‘ืชืœืžื•ื“” (ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื™ื˜;, ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืœ.); ืืš ืจื‘ื ื• ืชื ื•ื”ืจืžื‘”ื, ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื ืคืจื“, ืฆืžืฆืžื• ืงื‘ื™ืขื” ื–ื• ืœืžื“ื™. ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“, ืžื•ื‘ื ื‘ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช, “ื•ื ืจืื” ืœืจ”ืช ื“ืื ื• ืฉืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ื“ื™ื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœื•ืœ ื‘ืžืงืจื ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ื•ืžืชืœืžื•ื“” (ืข”ื– ื™ื˜: ืชื“”ื” ื™ืฉืœืฉ); ื•ืžืื™ื“ืš, ื‘ืค”ื ืžื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื ืคืกืง:

“ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืืช ื–ืžืŸ ืœืžื™ื“ืชื•… ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื. ืื‘ืœ ื›ืฉื™ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ื—ื›ืžื”, ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื›ืชื‘ ื•ืœื ืœืขืกื•ืง ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”, ื™ืงืจื ื‘ืขื™ืชื™ื ืžื–ื•ืžื ื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื›ืชื‘ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืฉืžื•ืขื”, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืฉื›ื— ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ื“ื™ื ื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ื•ื™ืคื ื” ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ืœื’ืžืจื ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ืœืคื™ ืจื•ื—ื‘ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ืœื‘ื• ื•ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื“ืขืชื•” (ื”ืœ’ ื™”ื‘).

ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ืื™ื ื” ืžืงืจื™ืช. ื”ื™ื ื ืขื•ืฆื” ื‘ื–ื™ืงืชื” ื”ืขืžื•ืงื” ืœืœื‘ ืœื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื”ื“ื•ืช. ื”ืชื•ื“ืขื” ื”ื“ืชื™ืช ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช ื”ื ื”, ื‘ืฉื•ืจืฉื” ื•ื‘ืžื”ื•ืชื”, ื ื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช. ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืžื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื‘ืื ืคื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื™ื: ื›ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืื—ืจื•ืŸ, ื›ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ื’ื•ืืœ, ื›ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ื—ืกื“ ื•ื›ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ืืžืช. ืืš ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื›ืœ, ื”ื•ื ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืืœื™ื• ื›ืžืฆื•ื•ื”, ื›ืžืฆื™ื‘ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ื›ืงื•ื‘ืข ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช; ื•ืืช ืขืฆืžื•, ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ, ื›ืžืฆื•ื•ื”. ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืœื›ืš, ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจ’ ื™ืฆื—ืง, ื‘ื”ื ืคื•ืชื— ืจืฉ”ื™ ืืช ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื• ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”: “ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืœื ืžื”ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ืœื›ื ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉื ืฆื˜ื•ื• ื‘ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืคืชื— ื‘ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช?” ื”ื”ื ื—ื” ื”ื’ืœื•ืžื” ื‘ืฉืืœื”, ืฉื™ืฉื ื” ื—ืคื™ืคื” ืžืœืื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชื•ืจื” ืœืžืฆื•ื•ื”, ื”ื ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืงื” ืœื›ืช ืžื“ื™. ื•ืืžื ื ื”ืจืžื‘”ืŸ ืžื™ืชื ื” ื‘ืžื™ื“ื”, ื•ื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ ื›ื™ ื•ื•ื“ืื™ “ืฆื•ืจืš ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ืจื ื-ืœื•ื”ื™ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืจืฉ ื”ืืžื•ื ื” ื•ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืืžื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ื” ื•ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉื”ืขื•ืœื ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืœ”, ืืœื ืฉื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื”ืฉืืœื” ื”ื™ื™ืชื”, ืฉื”ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื” ืขื•ืžืง ื”ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื•ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ “ืœื ื™ื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ื” ืฉืœื™ืžื” ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื”, ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฆื•ืจืš ืœืคืจื˜ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื ืžื‘ื•ืืจื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืจื”. ื ื™ืชืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืœืฉืจื˜ื˜ ื‘ืงื•ื•ื™ื ื›ืœืœื™ื™ื; ื•ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื–ื”, “ื•ืชื™ืฉืืจ ื”ื™ื“ื™ืขื” ืœื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ืขื ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”” (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื: ื). ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™, ืžืฆื“ื•, ื”ื˜ืขื™ื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง, “ื•ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืžืฆื•ื•ืช ื”ื ืขื™ืงืจ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืจืื•ื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืคืชื— ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื™ ืื ื‘ืžืฆื•ื•ื”, ื•ืžื” ืœืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ื”ื™ื” ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืกื•ืจ ืœืงื‘ืœืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืฉืœื ื™ื™ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืกืคืจ ื”ืชื•ืจื”” (“ื”ืงื“ืžื”” ืœืคื™ืจื•ืฉื• ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ื‘ืžื”ื“’ ื”ืจื‘ ืฉืขื•ื•ืขืœ, ืขืž’ ื™ื‘). ื‘ืจื, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืืฃ ื‘ื ื™ืกื•ื—ื™ื ืืœื”, ื”ื–ื™ืงื” ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืชื•ืจื” ืœืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืžืฉืชืงืคืช ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžื” ืจื‘ื”.

ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื–ื• ื˜ืžื•ืŸ ืกื•ื“ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ ืžืขืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ื‘ืชื•ื“ืขื” ื•ื‘ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื›ื ืกืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ื”. ืœืขื•ืžืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ื”, ื‘ืจื‘ื“ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ื™ื ืžืชืžืงื“ืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื™ ืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื•ืคื™ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช, ื•ื”ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ื” ืžื—ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืกืจ ื”ื ื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฆืขื“ ื•ืฉืขืœ. ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ืืžื ื ื›ื•ืœืœืช, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืืฃ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื™ืกื•ื“ ืฉืœ ืื’ื“ื”. ื ืจ ืœืจื’ืœื ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืกืคืจื™ :

“ื“”ื :’ื›ื™ ืื ืฉืžื•ืจ ืชืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ื”ื–ืืช’ – ืฉืžื ืชืืžืจ ื”ืจื™ ืื ื™ ืงื•ืจื ืคืจืฉื” ืงืฉื” ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืืช ื”ืงืœื”, ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ :’ื›ื™ ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ืจืง ื”ื•ื ืžื›ื’ – ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืืชื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืจื™ืงื™ื ื”ื•ื, ืœื ืจื™ืงื” ื”ื•ื, ืืœื ืžื›ื.’ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ื™ื™ื›ื ื•ืื•ืจืš ื™ืžื™ื›ื’ ืฉืœื ืชืืžืจ ืœืžื“ืชื™ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื“ื™ ืœื™, ืช”ืœ’ื›ื™ ืื ืฉืžื•ืจ ืชืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ื”ื–ืืช’, ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืžื•ื“: ืžื“ืจืฉ, ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื•ืื’ื“ื•ืช.ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ’ืœืžืขืŸ ื”ื•ื“ื™ืขืš ื›ื™ ืœื ืขืœ ื”ืœื—ื ืœื‘ื“ื• ื™ื—ื™ื” ื”ืื“ื’ – ื–ื” ืžื“ืจืฉ,’ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžื•ืฆื ืคื™ ื”’ ื™ื—ื™ื” ื”ืื“ื’ – ืืœื• ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื•ืื’ื“ื•ืช.ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ’ื—ื›ื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืžื— ืœื‘ื™ ื•ืืฉื™ื‘ื” ื—ื•ืจืคื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืื•ืžืจ’ื‘ื ื™ ืื ื—ื›ื ืœื‘ืš, ื™ืฉืžื— ืœื‘ื™ ื’ื ืื ื™” (ืค’ ืขืงื‘, ืคื™ืกืงื ื™”ื‘).

ื”ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืื’ื“ื”, ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื–ื• ืื• ืื—ืจืช, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ืŸ ื›ืคืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ื™ืขืช ืชื•ืจื”, ื•ื”ืŸ ื›ืชืžืจื™ืฅ ืœืืžื•ื ื” ื•ื“ื‘ื™ืงื•ืช ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื ื•ืชื ื”. ื•ื›ืš ืžื•ื‘ื ื‘ืกืคืจื™ ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš :

“ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ ืจืฉื•ืžื•ืช ืื•ืžืจื™ื : ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืฉืชื›ื™ืจ ืžื™ ืฉืืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื’ื“ื”, ืฉืžืชื•ืš ื›ืš ืืชื” ืžื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืงื‘”ื” ื•ืžื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื•” (ืฉื, ืคื™ืกืงื ื™”ื’).

ืžืชื•ืš ื›ืš ืืฃ ื™ื•ื—ื“ ื—ืœืง ืœื ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื’ืžืจื, ืืžื ื ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ื‘ืœื™, ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืื’ื“ื”. ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืขื•ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื”ื”ืœื›ื”,ื•ื”ื™ื ืžื˜ื‘ื™ืขื” ืืช ื—ื•ืชืžื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื•ื•ื™ืชื•. ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื” ืžื”ื•ื•ื”, ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ืžืคื’ืฉ ืขื ื ื•ืชืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ื›ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ื•ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ืขื ืžื™ ืฉืืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ืื™ืŸ ืคืœื, ืื ื›ืš, ืฉื—ื–”ืœ ืจืื•ื” ื›ื‘ืกื™ืก ื–ื™ืงืชื” ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื›ื ืกืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื. “ืœื ื›ืจืช ื”ืงื‘”ื” ื‘ืจื™ืช ืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื””, ืงื‘ืข ืจ’ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ, “ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื›ืจืชื™ ืืชืš ื‘ืจื™ืช ื•ืืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ’ (ื’ื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ืก:); ื•ื›ืจื™ืชืช ื‘ืจื™ืช, ื‘ื”ืฉืงืคืช ื”ื™ื”ื“ื•ืช, ืžืขื•ื’ื ืช ื‘ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ื”. ื•ืื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื–ื• ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ืชื’ืœืžื•ืชื” ื”ืžื•ืฉืœืžืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื ื” ื”ื’ืžืจื ื•ื”ืกืชืขืคื•ืชื”. ื‘ื‘ื™ืื•ืจ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื˜ื•ืจ : ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ’ืชื•ืจืช ืืžืช’ – ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื›ืชื‘’ื•ื—ื™ื™ ืขื•ืœื ื ื˜ืข ื‘ืชื•ื›ื ื•’ – ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืข”ืค ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ื“ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื›ืžืกืžืจื•ืช ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื” (ืื•ืจื— ื—ื™ื™ื, ืกื™’ ืงืœ”ื˜). ื‘ืจืงืข ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” (ืื•, ืื•ืœื™, ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข) ื”ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืืช ื”ืคืกื•ืง ื‘ืฉืœื”ื™ ืงื”ืœืช: “ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื” – ืžื” ื ื˜ื™ืขื” ื–ื• ืคืจื” ื•ืจื‘ื”, ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ.’ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืกื•ืคื•ืช’ – ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื”. ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ืŸ, ื”ืœืœื• ืื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ, ื”ืœืœื• ืคื•ืกืœื™ื ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ” (ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” ื’:).ื”ืžื™ื˜ืคื•ืจ ื”ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ ื™ืฉื™ื, ืื ื›ืŸ, ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื ืื™ื; ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื”ืžืฉืš, ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ ื”ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืœืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ืœืชืกื™ืกื” ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืœื ื”ื’ืžืจื. ื”ืžืฉื ื” ื”ื ื”, ื™ื—ืกื™ืช, “ืชื•ืจืช ืืžืช”, ื”ืงืฆื•ื‘ื” ื•ื—ืฆื•ื‘ื”, ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”; ื•ืื™ืœื• ื”ืคืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื ืžื™ ืžืฉืชืงืฃ, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ, ื‘ื’ืžืจื. ืคืชื™ื—ืช ื“ืฃ ืžื›ื ื™ืกื” ืืช ื”ืœื•ืžื“ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืžื“ืจืฉ ืชื•ืกืก ื•ืฉื•ืงืง.

ืกื•ื’ื™ื” ื–ื• ื”ื ื” ื–ื™ืจืช ื”ืชื ืฆื—ื•ืช ื•ื”ืกืชืขืจื•ืช, ื‘ื” ืžืœื—ืžืชื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืžืชื ื”ืœืช ื‘ืชืขื•ื–ื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื”. ื”ืกื•ืคื” ืฉื‘ืกื™ื•ืžื” ืื”ื‘ื”, ื”ื“ื™ืืœืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ืžืชืžื“ืช, ื”ื’ืœื™ืฉื” ื”ืืกื•ืฆื™ืื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช – ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื‘ื•ืงืขื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ื•ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื™ื, ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืžืฉื“ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืฆืžื”. ืœืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืขื™ื•ื ื™ ื”ืฆืจื•ืฃ ืžืชืœื•ื•ื” ืžืžื“ ื“ืจืžื˜ื™, ื”ืžืฉืชืฃ ืืช ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“, ืœืฆื“ ื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืชื•ื“ืขื” ื”ื ื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช, ื‘ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”.ื‘ื”ืงืฉืจ ืœื–ื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืคืฉืจ ื”ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื, “ืžืฉื ื”” ื•”ื’ืžืจื” ื‘ืชื•ื“ืขืชื ื•. ืืœื• ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ื ืžื•ื’ื“ืจื™ื, ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืชื ืื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืฉืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจืื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ. ื‘ืจื, ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื— ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœืื•ืคื™ ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืกืคืจื™ื. “ืžืฉื ื””, ืžื˜ืขื™ื ืจืฉ”ื™, “ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื ืฉื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขืžืŸ ืžืคื•ืจืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ” (ื‘ื‘ื ืžืฆื™ืขื ืœื’., ื“”ื” ืžืฉื ื”); ื•ื–ืืช, ืœืขื•ืžืช “ืกื‘ืจืช ื˜ืขืžื™ ื”ืžืฉื ื”, ื•ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืกื•ืชืจื•ืช ื–ื• ืืช ื–ื•, ื•ื˜ืขืžื™ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ืชืจ, ื•ื”ื—ื™ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืคื˜ื•ืจ, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื’ืžืจื” (ืฉื, ื“”ื” ืฉืœื™ืžื“ื•, ื•ื”ืฉื•ื•ื” ื‘ืจืฉ”ื™ ืฉื, ื“”ื” ื’ืžืจื, ื•ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื”,ื ื“”ื” ื–ื” ื’ืžืจื, ื•ืจืฉื‘”ื ื‘”ื‘ ืงืžื”,ื‘ ื“”ื” ื’ืžืจื). ื›ืš, ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ, ื‘ืจืžื‘”ื, ื‘ื‘ื•ืื• ืœืคืกื•ืง ืืช ื—ืœื•ืงืช ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ (ืœ.):

“ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืืช ื–ืžืŸ ืœืžื™ื“ืชื•, ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื›ืชื‘, ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”, ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉื›ื™ืœ ืื—ืจื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืจืืฉื™ืชื•, ื•ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื“ื‘ืจ, ื•ื™ื“ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจ, ื•ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžื™ื“ื•ืช ืฉื”ืชื•ืจื” ื ื“ืจืฉืช ื‘ื”ืŸ, ืขื“ ืฉื™ื“ืข ื”ื™ืืš ื”ื•ื ืขื™ืงืจ ื”ืžื™ื“ื•ืช, ื•ื”ื™ืืš ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื”ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ืžื•ืชืจ, ื•ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืœืžื“ ืžืคื™ ื”ืฉืžื•ืขื”. ื•ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื’ืžืจื” (ื”ืœ’ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื”, ืค”ื ื”ืœ’ ื™”ื).

ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ, ืื ื›ืŸ, ื‘ืฆื•ืจืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื•ื“ืจืš ืœื™ืžื“ื•; ืืœื ืฉื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืงื™ื™ื ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœื’ื™ืฉื”. ื ื™ืชืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ืขืฆืžื” ืœ”ืžืฉื ื””, ื•ืืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื” ืœืฉื™ื ื•ืŸ ื‘ืงื™ืื•ืชื™. ืืš ื›ื›ืœ ืฉืชืœืžื™ื“ ื ืชืคืก ืœื ืจืง ืœืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ืืœื ืœืจื•ื—ื”, ืจื•ื— ื–ื• ืชืคืขื™ืžืชื• ืœืœื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ืžืขืžื™ืง ื•ืชื•ืกืก ื›ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ืชื›ื ื™ื”.

ืœื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ, ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืœื” ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจื™ื- ื•ื–ืืช, ืœื ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืงื‘ื™ืขื” ื“ื•ื’ืžื˜ื™ืช ืืœื ื›ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืงื™ื•ืžื™ืช. ื‘ืจื, ื“ื ืขืงื. ื‘ืฉื˜ื—, ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื ืคืขื ืฉืœื’ื‘ื™ ื—ืœืง ืœื ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ืžืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืช ื”ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืžืชื ื’ืฉืช ื”ื“ื’ืฉืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื’ืžืจื ืขื ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš: “ื—ื ืš ืœื ืขืจ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื“ืจื›ื•”. ื‘ื‘ื™ืื•ืจ ื”ืคืกื•ืง, ื”ื•ืฆืขื• ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืžื”ื ืฉืจืื• ื‘ื• ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื” ืœื’ืžื™ืฉื•ืช, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื™ื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชืคืฉืจื•ืช ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ื—ื ื™ืš ื•ืขื•ืœืžื•, ื•ืžื”ื ืฉืจืง ื”ื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ื• ื›ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ื ืคืฉื•, ื•ืœืชื›ื ืŸ ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ื”ื•ืจืื” ื‘ื”ืชืื. ืืš ืืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื“ื•ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื›ืื—ืช. (ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ืจื‘ื ื• ื™ื•ื ื”, ื”ืžืื™ืจื™ ื•ื”ื’ืจ”ื ืขืœ ืืชืจ, ืžืฉืœื™ ื›ื‘,ื).

ื•ื›ืืŸ ืื ื•, ืžืื•ื”ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืืฉื™, ืจืฉ”ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ื• ืชื, ื‘ืžื‘ื•ื›ื”. ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืฆืขืจ ืžื•ื›ื™ื— ื›ื™ ื”ืืฉ ื”ื™ื•ืงื“ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื ื• ืื™ื ื” ืžืฉืœื”ื‘ืช, ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืื™ืจื”, ืืช ื›ืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื ื•. ืœื“ืื‘ื•ื ื ื•, ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ื ืžืกืชื’ืœื™ื ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื’ืžืจื ื‘ื”ื™ืงืฃ- ื•ื—ืœืงื, ืืฃ ืื™ื ื ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœื›ืš. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชื‘ืฉื ืžืจื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”, ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉืื•ืฃ ืืช ืื•ื™ืจ ืคืกื’ื•ืชื™ื”, ืฆืจื™ืš ืงื•ื“ื ืœื”ืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื›ืžื” ืžืฉื•ื›ื•ืช, ื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืื•ืชื ื‘ื”ืฆืœื—ื”. ื”ืฉืคื” ืงืฉื”, ื”ืชื—ื‘ื™ืจ ืžื•ื–ืจ, ื”ืžื‘ื ื” ืžื‘ื™ืš. ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื›ืš, ืงื™ื™ื ืคืขืจ ืจืฆื™ื ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ื• ื ืชืงืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื‘ืคืกื—ื™ื ืื• ื‘ื‘ื ืงืžื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื™ื. ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื, ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ, ื”ื›ืœ ืคืจื•ืฉ ื•ืฉื˜ื•ื—, ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ื•ื•ืจ ื›ืฉืžืœื”; ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ืขืจื•ื›ื™ื ื•ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื, ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ืขืœ ืื•ืคื ื™ื•. ื•ืื™ืœื• ื‘ื‘ื•ืื• ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื“ืฃ ื’ืžืจื, ืžืชืงืฉื” ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืคืชื™ื—ื” ื•ืืฃ ืื™ื ื• ืžืฆืœื™ื— ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ืกื•ืฃ. ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืกื›ืชื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื•ืช “ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืชื—ืœื””; ื•ื‘ืกื•ื’ื™ื•ืช, ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“, ื—ืกืจ, ืœื ืคืขื, ื”ืงืจืข ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉ, ื•ืื™ืœื• ืžืื™ื“ืš, ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืื™ืจื™ ื‘ืขืงื‘ื™ื•ืช, ื’ื•ืœืฉ ื”ื“ื™ื•ืŸ ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืœืชื™ ืฆืคื•ื™ื™ื. ืชื•ืจืช ื—ื–”ืœ ื”ื™ื, ื•ื ื™ืžื•ืงื ืขื™ืžื; ื•ื—ืก ื•ื—ืœื™ืœื” ืœื ื• ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ืื—ืจื™ ืขืจื™ื›ืชื ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ืืฉื™. ื•ื”ืจื™ ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื”ืžื‘ื ื” ื”ืžืชืคืชืœ ื•ื”ืžืชืคืฆืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉืžืขื ื™ืง ืœื’ืžืจื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ื”ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœื‘ ื•ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ื” ืขื™ืŸ. ื‘ืจื, ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ืฉืขื‘ื•ืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืžืขืจื™ื ืงืฉื™ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืœื™ื“ื™ื ืžื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืชืกื›ื•ืœ ื›ืื—ื“.

ืชื•ืคืขื” ื–ื• ืื™ื ื”, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืชื’ืœื™ืช ื—ื“ืฉื”. “ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘”, ืžื•ื‘ื ื‘ืฉืœื”ื™ ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื, “ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘’ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ืขื ื™ ืจืขื™ื'”- ื–ื” ื‘ืขืœ ื’ืžืจื,-‘ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื• ืžืฉืชื” ืชืžื™ื“’, ื–ื” ื‘ืขืœ ื”ืžืฉื ื”” (ืงืž”ื”). ืจืฉื‘”ื ืขืœ ืืชืจ ืžืกื‘ื™ืจ, ืฉื“ื›ื“ื•ืš ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื›ืจื•ืš ื‘ืžืืžืฅ ื”ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื•- “ืฉืžืžื™ืช ืขืฆืžื• ืœื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื•ืœืชืจืฅ ื”ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช”. ืืš ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ื‘ืข ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืœ ืฉืœื ืคืขื ื ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืžืชื—ืชื• ื›ืคืจื™ ืขืžืœื•. ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืชืคืœื, ืื ื›ืš, ืฉื’ืื•ื ื™ื ื•ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉืืคื• ืœื”ืงืœ ืขืœ ื”ืœื•ืžื“- ืื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืจื™ื›ืช ื’ื•ืคื™ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืœืคื™ ื ื•ืฉืื™ื, ื›ื‘”ืฉืื™ืœืชื•ืช ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื—ืื™”, ื•ื›ืžื” ืžืกืคืจื™ ืจื‘ ื”ืื™ ื’ืื•ืŸ ื•ืจืก”ื’; ืื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฆืžืฆื•ื ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื”ืฉ”ืก ื›ื•ืœื• ื•ื›ืœ ืžืกื›ืช ื‘ื ืคืจื“, ื›ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ื›ื•ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœื“ ืคืกื™ืงืชื™ ื›ื‘”ื‘ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช”, ืื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฉืžื˜ืช ื”ืฉืงืœื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื”ืจื™”ืฃ. ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื“ื“ ืืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื”ืงืœื” ื”ืจื”ื”, ื‘ื‘ื•ืื• ืœื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ, ื‘ื”ืงื“ืžืชื• ืœ”ืคืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืœื•ื™ื™ื”, ืืช ื”ืจืงืข ืœื™ื•ื–ืžืชื• ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ืขืœ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื”ืจื™”ืฃ, “ืฉื”ื ื›ื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืคื•ืจืฉื™ื ื›ื ืคื™ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื“ื•ืจื•ืช, ืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืคื™ ื”ื›ืœ ื•ืฉืžื•ืจื•ืช”: “ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื ืชืžืขื˜ื• ื”ืœื‘ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืืจื›ื• ื”ื’ืœื™ื•ืช ื•ื ื‘ื”ืœื• ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช”, ื”ื•ื ืžืชื ื”-

“ื›ืชื‘ ืจื‘ื ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื”ืžืฉื ื”,ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ืช ื ืชื•ื ื” ืฉื™ืœืžื“ื• ืื•ืชื” ืกื“ื•ืจื”,ื•ืชื”ื™ื” ื‘ืคื™ ื›ืœ ืฉื’ื•ืจื”,ื•ื’ื ืขืœื™ื” ื™ืฆืื• ืขืกืงื™ื,ืกื‘ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ื“ืงื“ื•ืงื™ื,ื ื‘ื ื” ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืฉื”ื ืžื™ื ืขืžื•ืงื™ื,ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื ืขืœืžื™ื ื•ืืจื•ื›ื™ื,ืขื“ ืฉืงืจืื•ื”ื• ื”ื—ื›ืžื™ื “ืžื—ืฉื›ื™ื”.ื•ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืžืฆืื• ื“ืœืชื™ื• ื ืขื•ืœื•ืช,ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืœื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช,ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ืกืคืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืงืฅ,ื•ืœื”ื’ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื’ื™ืขืช ื‘ืฉืจ,ื—ื•ืžื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืฉื“ืœืชื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืจื™ื—,ื•ืžื’ื“ืœ ืขื•ื– ื ื‘ืฆืจ,ื•ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื™ืขืคื™ื ื™ืฆืื• ื“ื—ื•ืคื™ื,ืชื—ืœื•ืฉ ื“ืขืชืŸ ืžืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืžืชืŸ.ื•ืื ื™ ื‘ืจืื•ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื’ื™ืขื” ืจื‘ื”,ื•ื”ื’ืžืจื ืกื•ื’ืจืช ื•ืžืกื•ื’ืจืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื,ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ืกืคืจ ืงืจืืชื™ื•’ื ื–ืจ ื”ืงื•ื“ืฉ’ ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื”ื’ืžืจื,ื•ื‘ืจืจืชื™ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ ืฉื™ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจื”,ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืกืคืจ ืœืงื—ืชื™ ืฉื™ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช,ื•ืœื ื˜ืจื—ืชื™ ืœื“ื—ื•ืช ืกื‘ืจื ื ืคืกื“ืช,ื•ืขื ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื ืขืœืžื™ื,ื‘ื—ื•ืชื ืฆืจ ืกืชื•ืžื™ื, ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื’ืขื™ื,ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ื–ื•ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืชื ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ื,ื•ืžืคื ื™ ื˜ืจื—ื•ืช ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื•ืœืจื’ืขื™ื,ื•ื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืฆืจื™ื, ื•ืคืกืงื™ื ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื,ื™ื™ืฉืื• ื—ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื”ื, ื™ืื™ืจื• ื›ืกืคื™ืจื™ื”.

ืขื ื–ืืช, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืช โ€“ื–ืžื ื ื•, ืžื ืช ืชืกื›ื•ืœ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื ื• ืžื—ืจื™ืคื” ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ; ื•ื‘ื”ืชืื, ืืฃ ื”ืฉืื™ืคื” ืœืชืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ื”ื™ืจื•ืช. ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“, ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื ื›ืชื‘ ืจื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ืจืชื™ืขืช ืžื™ ืฉื’ื“ืœ ืขืœ ื‘ืจื›ื™ ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืกื™ืคืงื•ื” ื”ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฉืงื™ืข ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืฉื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืขืžืœ, ื•ืจืง ืžื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื™ื ืชืžื•ืจืช ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืœื˜ื•ื•ื— ืืจื•ืš. ืžืื™ื“ืš, ื‘ืื•ื•ื™ืจื” ืœื™ื‘ืจืœื™ืช ื•ืื™ื ื“ื™ื•ื•ื™ื“ื•ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช, ืื™ืŸ ื”ื—ื ื™ืš ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืžื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ื•ืคืฃ ืจืฆื•ื ื• ื•ืœื”ืชืžืกืจ ืœืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื™ื‘ื• ืžื—ืคืฅ. ืžืขืœ ืœื›ืœ, ื—ืœืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืช ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ืž”ื“ (ื•ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื—ื•”ืœ) ื—ืกืจ ืจืงืข ืžืฉืคื—ืชื™ ื•ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ื”ืจื•ื•ื™ ื™ืจืืช ื”ืฉืžื™ื, ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืžืจื™ืฅ ืื•ืชื ืœื“ื‘ื•ืง ื‘ืžืฉื™ืžืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ื’ืžืจื ืžื›ื•ื— ืชื•ื“ืขืช ืงื“ื•ืฉืชื”. ื”ืชื•ืฆืื” ื”ื›ื•ืœืœืช ื”ื ื” ื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฆืจื™ื ื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช ืขื ื”ื’ืžืจื ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ืžืกืคืงืช ืœืกืœื•ื“ ืžืžื ื”, ืืš ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ืฉืคืชื ืœืขื•ืžืงื”, ืขื•ืฆืžืชื”, ื•ื™ืคืขืชื”.

ืชื•ืฆืื” ื›ื–ื• ื”ื ื”, ืœืœื ืกืคืง, ื‘ืขื™ื™ืชื™ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื—ื•ื ืœืžื™ื“ื”. ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžืชืืจื™ื ืฉื™ื˜ืช ืื™ืœื•ืฃ ื”ืžืขืžื™ืกื” ืขืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ืชืจื’ื™ืœื™ ืคืกื ืชืจ ืœืžื›ื‘ื™ืจ, ืืš ืื™ื ื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืจืชื• ืœื ื’ืŸ ืกื•ื ื˜ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื˜ื”ื•ื‘ืŸ ืื• ื‘ืจื”ืžืก? ืืœื ืฉืžืงืจื” ื“ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื›ืื•ื‘ื” ืฉื‘ืขืชื™ื™ื, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื›ื•ืฉืจ ืื•ืžื ื•ืชื™, ืืœื ื‘ืฆื™ืคื•ืจ ื ืคืฉ ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™. ืœื ื’ื“ ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•, ื›ืžื—ื ื›ื™ื, ื™ืขื“ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื‘ืจื•ืจ: ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืื“ื ืืฉืจ ื™ืจืืชื• ืงื•ื“ืžืช ืœื—ื›ืžืชื•. ื•ื–ืืช, ื”ืŸ ืžืคืืช ื”ื–ื™ืงื” ืœื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื›ืขืจืš ืงื™ื•ืžื™ ื›ืฉืœืขืฆืžื•, ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืคืืช ืงื‘ื™ืขืช ื—ื–”ืœ ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ืขื“ืจื” ืืฃ ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ืžืชืงื™ื™ืžืช. ื”ื ื—ื” ื–ื• ื”ื ื” ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืžืขืจื›ืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืชื•ืจื ื™ืช. ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืžืฉืคื™ืขื™ื ืขืœ ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ื•ืจืื”, ืืš ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื• ื–ื™ืงืช ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืœื™ืจืื”, ื”ืฉืคืขืช ืงื ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื“ืขืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืขืœ ืื”ื‘ืชื”.

ื’ื™ืฉื” ื–ื• ืจืื•ื™ื” ืœืžืฉื ื” ืชื•ืงืฃ ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื•ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ืช ื‘ืช- ื–ืžื ื ื•. ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืžืืชื™ื™ื ืฉื ื”, ืจื•ื‘ ืžื ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื•ื‘ ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžื•ืŸ, ืงื™ื•ืžื™ืช ื•ืžืขืฉื™ืช, ืขืœ ืžืกื•ืจืช ืื‘ื•ืช, ื•ื™ืœื“ ื’ื“ืœ ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืžื•ืฉืจืฉืช, ืžื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžื—ื•ืฅ, ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื™ ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืฆื•ื•ืช. ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื•, ืื ื›ืŸ, ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœื™ื. ืืฃ ืื ืื‘ื“ ื”ื—ื ื™ืš ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื•, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืื ื ืคืœื˜ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ, ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉื™ื™ืฉืืจ ืขื ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื•ืžืจ ืžืฆื•ื•ืช; ืœื ื—ืกื™ื“, ืืš ื’ื ืœื ืžืงืฆืฅ ื‘ื ื˜ื™ืขื•ืช. ื›ื™ื•ื, ื”ืžืฆื‘ ืฉื•ื ื” ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ. ื ื™ืชื•ืง ื ืคืฉื™ ืžืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœื ืชืง ืžื›ืœ ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ืช. ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืžื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ื“ืชื™ ืื• ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ื”ื™ื ืฆืขื“ ืžืกื•ื›ืŸ ืœืงืจืืช ื ื˜ื™ืฉืช ื–ื”ื•ืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช.

ื‘ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืžืฆืขืจืช ื–ื• ื ืขื•ืฅ ืžืฉืงืœ ืื—ืจื™ื•ืชื ื• ื›ืžื—ื ื›ื™ื; ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืื•ืชื ื• ืœื—ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื ื•ืงื‘ืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืงืฃ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื’ืžืจื. ืื ื™ืฉื ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืœื ืžืขื˜ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื•ื”ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืžื ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื™ืฉื™ื•ืชื ื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืœ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ืข, ื›ื•ืฉืจ ื•ื–ื™ืงื”, ื•ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ื ื•ื’ื“ื ื™ื. ืžื—ื•ื‘ืชื ื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืชื›ื•ื ืช ืžื—ื“ืฉ. ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ “ืื”; ืืš ื’ื ืœืœื ืกืงืจื™ื ืชื•ืžื›ื™ื, ื™ื‘ื•ืื• ื•ื™ืขื™ื“ื• ื”ืขื•ืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉืœื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื. ืืฉืจ ืœืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืžื—ื•ื“ืฉืช, ื—ื•ืฉืฉื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ื›ืื•ื‘ ืืš ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืžื ืข. ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ื›ื” ืžืขื™ืŸ ื–ื•, ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ื›ืžื—ื ืš ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื, ื›ื‘ืจ ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ื ืฉืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ื•ืžืกืงื ืชื• ื™ื“ื•ืขื”. ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื”ืงืœื” ืขืœ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ืฉื”ื—ืœ ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื—ื–”ืœ, ื”ืจื™ ืžืฆื ืืช ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ื• ื”ืžืœื ื•ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืจืžื‘”ื- ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ื”ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจืช ืœืขื•ืžืช ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืงื•ื“ืฉ; ื•ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ, ื‘ืžืืกืฃ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื ื•ืช, ื‘”ืžืฉื ื” ืชื•ืจื””. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืœืžื“ื ื™, ืžืฉืžืฉ ืžื’ื ื•ื ืื•ืคื•ืก ื–ื”, ืžืจืืฉื™ืช ื“ืจื›ื•, ื›ืžื›ืจื” ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ื“ืœื” ืฉืœ ืืชื’ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืฆืขืช ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช; ืืš ื”ืจืžื‘”ื ืขืฆืžื• ืกื™ืžืŸ, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืงื”ืœ ื™ืขื“ ืื—ืจ. “ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื””, ื”ื•ื ืžื˜ืขื™ื-

“ืชืงืคื• ื”ืฆืจื•ืช ื™ืชื™ืจื•ืช, ื•ื“ื—ืงื” ื”ืฉืขื” ืืช ื”ื›ืœ, ื•ืื‘ื“ื” ื—ื›ืžืช ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ื™ื ืช ื ื‘ื•ื ื™ื ื• ื ืกืชืจื”. ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืื•ืชื ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื—ื‘ืจื• ื”ื’ืื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืจืื• ืฉื”ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื•ืืจื™ื-ืžืชืงืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื•, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื›ืจืื•ื™ ืืœื ืžืขื˜ ื‘ืžืกืคืจ; ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ื’ืžืจื ืขืฆืžื” ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ืช ื•ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ืช, ื•ืกืคืจื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ื•ื”ืชื•ืกืคืชื, ืฉื”ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืช ืจื—ื‘ื” ื•ื ืคืฉ ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื–ืžืŸ ืืจื•ืš, ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื”ื ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื ื›ื•ื—ื” ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืกื•ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ื•ืฉืืจ ื“ื™ื ื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื™ืืš ื”ื•ื. ื•ืžืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื ืขืจืชื™ ื—ืฆื ื™, ืื ื™ ืžืฉื” ื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื™ืžื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคืจื“ื™, ื•ื ืฉืขื ืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื, ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืชื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืกืคืจื™ื, ื•ืจืื™ืชื™ ืœื—ื‘ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžืชื‘ืจืจื™ื ืžื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ื… ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื•ื“ืจืš ืงืฆืจื”, ืขื“ ืฉืชื”ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ืกื“ื•ืจื” ื‘ืคื™ ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ืœื ืงื•ืฉื™ื ื•ืœื ืคื™ืจื•ืง… ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื™ื ื™ืŸ ื’ืœื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืœื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ื•ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ื•ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืชื™ืงื ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื” (ื”ืงื“ืžื” ืœ”ืžืฉื ื” ืชื•ืจื””).

ื”ื”ืงื‘ืœื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื”. ืืžื ื ืžื–ืžืŸ, ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”’, ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงืคืช ืฆืจื•ืช ื™ืชื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืคื•ื’ืžื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“. ืืš ื“ื—ื™ืงืช ื”ืฉืขื” ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืงื™ื™ืžืช, ื”ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื•ื”ืŸ ื‘ื’ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืขืจื‘. ื‘ื”ืขื“ืจ ืžืฆื•ืงื”, ื ืคื’ืขื™ื ืžืจืฅ ื•ื›ื•ืฉืจ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื•ื•ืงื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ืจื•ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืคืข, ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื”ื ื•ืคื™ืชื•ื™ื™ื”ื. ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื ื™ืช ืจื“ื•ื“ื”, ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืชืงืฉื•ืจืชื™ ื ืœื•ื–, ืžืฉืžืขืช ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืจื•ืคืคืช, ื‘ืจืง ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื—ื“ื™ืฉื•ืช, ืชื—ืจื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื, ืื•ื™ืจื” ืคืจื’ืžื˜ื™ืช ื•ืชื•ืขืœืชื ื™ืช- ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื—ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืœื—ืชื•ืจ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืžื•ื˜ื™ื‘ืฆื™ื” ืœืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ื‘ื’ืžืจื ื‘ืคืจื˜. ืžืขืจืš ื–ื” ืคื•ื’ืข ืœื ืคืขื, ืœื ืจืง ื‘ื—ื›ืžืช ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ื ืช ื ื‘ื•ื ื™ื ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœื™ื™ื, ืืœื ืืฃ ื ื•ื’ืกืช ื‘ื™ืจืืช ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื‘ื–ื”ื•ืช ื”ืชื•ืจื ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื.

ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ, ืื ื›ืŸ, ืฉืืฃ ื”ืคืชืจื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ. ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื—ืœืง ืžืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ื“ืชื™, ืื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื•ืื ื‘ื—ื•”ืœ- ื›ื•ืœืœ ื—ืœืง ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช- ื”ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ื”ื•ื ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื”ื“ื’ืฉ ืžื’ืžืจื ืœืžืฉื ื”. ืฉื•ื‘, ืื™ื ื ื™ ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœืฉื ื™ ืืœื” ืจืง ื‘ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ื. ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืœืฉื™ื˜ืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื•ืฆื•ืจืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื”; ืœืื•ืคืŸ ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ื•ืœืžื™ื“ืช ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื•ืช. ืื ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืขื•ืœื ื—ื–”ืœ ืœืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืคืฉืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจื—ื‘ืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘”ืžืฉื ื” ืชื•ืจื”” ืขืœ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืœื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช.

ื‘ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื–ืžื ื ื•, ื“ื•ืžื ื™ ืฉืœืกืคืจ “ืžืฉื ื” ืชื•ืจื”” ืขืฆืžื• ืžืงื•ื ื ื›ื‘ื“ ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ื ืžื˜ืจืช ื”ืขืžืงืช ืชื•ื“ืช ื””ืžืฉื ื””; ื•ืื ื™ ืžื–ื“ื”ื” ื‘ืœื‘ ืฉืœื ืขื ืžืืžืฆื™ ื”ืจื‘ ืžืœื•ื‘ื‘ื™ืฅ ื–ืฆ”ืœ ืœื”ืคื™ืฅ ืืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“. ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“, ื”ืกืคืจ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืงืจื™ื-ื‘ื”ื™ืจ, ืžืกื•ื“ืจ, ืžืกื•ื’ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืคื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื•ืชื—ื‘ื™ืจ ืคืฉื•ื˜; ื•ืžืฆื“ ืฉื ื™, ื”ื•ื ืžืงืจื™ืŸ ืกืžื›ื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืฉืจื” ืื•ื™ืจืช ืคืกื’ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืขื“ืจืช ืžื”ืจื‘ื” ืกืคืจื™ื ื—ื“ื™ืฉื™ื, ืฉืืžื ื ืžืขื•ื“ื›ื ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ืคืกื™ืงื” ื”ืขื›ืฉื•ื•ื™ืช, ืืš ื ื˜ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื•ืฃ ื•ืžื•ืฉืจืฉื•ืช ื›ืื—ื“. ื”ืฉื’ืช ื”ืจืื‘”ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืงื“ืžืช ื”ืจืžื‘”ื ื•ืžื‘ื ื” ื”ืกืคืจ ื™ื“ื•ืขื”- “ืืžืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื: ืกื‘ืจ ืœืชืงืŸ ื•ืœื ืชื™ืงืŸ, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืขื–ื‘ ื“ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืคื ื™ื•, ื›ื™ ื”ื ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืจืื™ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื, ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื ืื•ืžืจื, ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื‘ื–ื” ืชื•ืขืœืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื””. ืืš ื”ืจืื‘”ื“ ื—ืฉืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืžื”ื”ืฉืœื›ื•ืช ื›ืœืคื™ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื•ืคื•ืกืงื™ื ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื™ื, ื•ืื™ืœื• ืื ื• ื“ื ื™ื ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื. ื•ืื ื›ื™ื’ื ืขื‘ื•ืจื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืžื™ ืฉื™ืœืžื“ ืืช ื””ื™ื“ ื”ื—ื–ืงื”” ื›ื˜ืงืกื˜ ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืžืžื•ืฆืขืช ื™ืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืจืงืข ื•ืคืœืคืœ, ื•ื“ืื™ ืฉืœื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืฆืžื•ื— “ืชื•ืขืœืช ืจื‘ื”” ื“ื•ื•ืงื ืžื”ืฉืžื˜ื•ืช ื”ืจืžื‘”ื. ื‘ืจื, ื–ื• ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืžืฉื ื™ืช. ื”ืขื™ืงืจ ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ื“ืจืš.

ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ: ืื ื™ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ ื“ื•ืื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ื“ ืจื•ื˜ื˜ืช; ื‘ื“ื ื•ื‘ื“ืžืข. ืื ื™ ื›ืฉืœืขืฆืžื™ ื—ื•ื ื›ืชื™ ืขืœ ื‘ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืžืจื ืžืฉื—ืจ ื˜ืœ ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื™, ื•ืื ื™ ืžืื•ื”ื‘ ื‘ื” ืื”ื‘ืช ื ืคืฉ. ืื•ื”ื‘ ืœืœื•ืžื“ื”, ืื•ื”ื‘ ืœืœืžื“ื”, ื•ืฉื•ืืฃ ืœื”ืื”ื™ื‘ื”. ืื ื™ ืงืฉื•ืจ ื‘ื” ืœื ืจืง ื‘ืจืžืช ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืื™ืฉื™ืช, ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช, “ื›ื™ ืื ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื”’ ื—ืคืฆื•.. ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืœื•ืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืืœื ืžืžืงื•ื ืฉืœื™ื‘ื• ื—ืคืฅ”, ืืœื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืฉืงืคื” ืขืจื›ื™ืช; ืฉื‘ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ืŸ ืชื•ืจื” ืœื—ืคื•ืฅ, ื•ืฉืœืื”ื‘ืชื” ืžื—ื•ื‘ืชื ื• ืœื—ื ื›ื•. ื›ื— ืžื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืืŸ ืจื—ื•ืง ืžืื•ื“ ืžืœืฉืงืฃ ืืช ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™ืช ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืฆื˜ื™ื™ืจืช ื‘ืขื™ื ื™. ืœื›ืชื—ื™ืœื”, ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื—ืชื•ืจ ืœื”ื’ืฉืžืช ื—ื–ื•ืŸ ื ืคืจืฅ ืฉืœ ืขื“ืจื™ื ืขื“ืจื™ื ืจื›ื•ื ื™ื ืขืœ “ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื ื’ื— ืืช ื”ืคืจื”” ืื• “ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืฉื ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘”, ืžืชืคืœืคืœื™ื ื‘’ืžื’ื• ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื’ ืื•’ื”ื›ื ื” ื“ืจื‘ื”’. ื‘ืจื, ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืช ืžื™ื ื™ืžืœื™ืช ื“ื•ืจืฉืช ื›ืฉืžืชืขืžืชื™ื ืขื ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื“ื™ืขื‘ื“, ื—ืก ืœื ื• ืœื”ืฉืชืขืฉืข ื‘ืืฉืœื™ื•ืช ืื• ื‘ื ื•ืกื˜ืœื’ื™ื”. ื”ื ืกืชื›ืŸ ื‘ื”ืงืจื‘ืช ืขืชื™ื“ ื—ื ื™ื›ื ื• ืขืœ ืžื–ื‘ื— ื—ืœื•ืžื•ืชื™ื ื•? ืฆืžืฆื•ื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื‘ืžืขืจืš ืชื•ืจื ื™ ื’ื•ื‘ื”, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืžื—ื™ืจ: ืฆื™ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืœื”ื˜, ื”ื•ืจื“ืช ืžืชื—, ืื‘ื“ืŸ ืขื•ืฆืžื”, ื”ืฉืงื˜ืช ืžืœื—ืžืชื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”, ื”ืขื™ื•ื ื™ืช ื•ื”ืงื™ื•ืžื™ืช. ืืช ื”ืชืžื•ืจื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ืืฃ ื”ื™ื: ื”ืจื—ื‘ืช ืžืขื’ืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืืžื•ื ื™ื ืœืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื ื•ืชื ื”, ืฆืžืฆื•ื ืžืžื“ื™ ื ืฉื™ืจื”, ื ืคืฉื™ืช ื•ืคื™ื–ื™ืช, ื•ื”ื’ื‘ืจืช ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื”ื™ื“ืข. ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื™ืžื•ืฅ ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื”ืชืคืฉืจื•ืช ืขื ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช-ืื•ืœื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืœ ื›ื ื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ื”. ืื‘ืœ ื›ืฉื—ื™ื™ ืขื•ืœื ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืฃ ื”ืžืื–ื ื™ื™ื, ื”ื ืขื™ื– ืœื”ืฉืชืชืฃ ื‘ืžืื‘ืงื™ ื›ื•ื—? ื”ื ืชืขืงืฉ ืœื”ื˜ื™ื— ืจืืฉ ื‘ืงื™ืจ?

ืœื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ, ื—ืœื™ืœื”, ื‘ืกืชื™ืžืช ื”ื’ื•ืœืœ ืขืœ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื’ืžืจื ืื™ื ื˜ื ืกื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช. ื—ืก ืœื ื• ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื“ ื”ืžืกืš ืขืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืคืœืื™ื ื”ืชื•ืจื ื™, ื•ืืœ ืœื ื• ืœื ืขื•ืœ ื•ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื‘ื™ื ื” ืื—ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ื”ืฆืžื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื”’. ื ืฉืžื•ืจ ืžื›ืœ ืžืฉืžืจ ืขืœ ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ. ื ื“ืื’ ืœืคืชื™ื—ืชื ืœืจื•ื•ื—ื”, ื•ื ืชืืžืฅ ืœื”ื—ื“ื™ืจ ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืœืขืจื›ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืžืœื ื”ื™ืงืคื” ื•ืขื•ืฆืžืชื”. ื ื—ื ืš ืœืœืžื“ื ื•ืช ื•ืœืฉืื™ืคื” ืœืœืžื“ื ื•ืช- ื•ื ืงื•ื•ื” ืฉื”ืžืกืจ ื™ื™ืงืœื˜. ืœื ื ืกืชืคืง ื‘ื”ื•ืฆืืช ืื—ื•ื–ื™ื ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืœื”ื•ืจืื” ื•ืœื ื ืชื ื—ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ืขื” ื›ื™ ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืจื‘ืชื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืžืื– ื•ืžืงื“ื. ืืš ื—ืจืฃ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืืžืฆื™ื ืชื™ืฉืืจ ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ืœื ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœืช ืืฉืจ ืœืงื•ืœ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ ื‘ืคื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื‘ื ื• ืชื”ื™ื” ื—ืจืฉืช. ื›ืœืคื™ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ืจื”, ื•ืืช ื”ืžืขื ื” ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ืชืื™ื, ืขื“ ืจืžื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช, ืœื ื˜ื™ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœืชื”. ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืจื’ืฉื™ืช ื•ืขืจื›ื™ืช, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืžื”ืœืš ื›ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืœืจื•ื—ื ื•. ื ื•ื“ืฃ ื”ื™ืžื ื•, ื›ืืžื•ืจ ืจื™ื— ืฉืœ ื ืกื™ื’ื” ืžืงื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื ื™ืขื” ืœืื˜ื™ืžื•ืช. ืืš ื’ื ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ืฉื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื, ื”ืชืคืฉืจื•ืช ื›ื–ื•, ืžื‘ื™ื›ื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ืฉื” ืžื ืงื•ื“ืช ืจืื•ืช ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™ืช, ืžืชื‘ืงืฉืช ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ืช “ื—ื ื•ืš ืœื ืขืจ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื“ืจื›ื•”.ืืžื ื ื’ื ืžืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื›ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืžื’ืข ืขื ืขื•ืœื ื”ืœืžื“ื ื•ืช. ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ื”ืขืจื›ืช ื”ื”ืœื›ื” ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ื‘ืกื™ืก ืœืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœืคื™ื”, ื™ืฉ ืœื—ืฉื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ื—ื ื™ืš, ืžืžื ื• ืื ื• ืžืฆืคื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœืช ืžืจื•ืช ืชื•ืจื”, ืœืžืœื•ื ืขื•ืฆืžืชื” ื•ื”ื“ืจื”. ื’ื ืื ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื’ืžืจื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืฆื•ืžืฆื ืœืžื“ื™, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื“ืจื›ื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”, ืื•ืคื™ื™ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชืœืฉืœื•ืชื”, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื™ืฉื›ื™ืœ ืœื”ื•ืงื™ืจื” ื•ืœื›ื‘ื“ื”. ืœืฉื ื›ืš, ื™ืฉ ืœืขืจื•ืš ื›ืžื” ืงื™ื“ื•ื—ื™ื ืœืขื•ืžืง- ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืกื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžืกื“ ืขื“ ื”ื˜ืคื—ื•ืช, ืžื”ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื”ืคืกื™ืงื”, ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืฆื‘ื™ื•ื ื” ื•ืื™ื›ื•ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืœื›ื” ืชื•ื“ื’ื ื‘ื‘ื”ื™ืจื•ืช. ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื ื•ืฉืื™ื- ืžื”ื ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื•ื•ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“, ื•ืžื”ื, ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ, ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื™ื ืžืžื ื•- ืืฉืจ ื‘ืคื™ืชื•ื—ื ืžื•ืจื’ืฉ ื”ืื™ื–ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ืœืœื™ื ื•ืคืจื˜ื™ื, ืกืžื›ื•ืช ื•ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ, ืฉืžืจื ื•ืช ื•ืชื ื•ืคื”. ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืžืคื’ืฉ ืžืฆื•ืžืฆื ืขื ื”ื’ืžืจื ืœื ื™ืงื ื” ืžื™ื•ืžื ื•ืช ื˜ืงืกื˜ื•ืืœื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžืžืฉ- ืžื” ืขื•ื“, ืฉื”ืงื™ื“ื•ื—ื™ื ืขืฆืžื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืจืฆื•ืคื™ ื”ื™ืฉืขื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื ื•ืกื™ื›ื•ืžื™ื. ืืš ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืงื™ื™ื ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ ืจืฆื™ื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช ืขื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื”ืœื›ืชื™ืช, ื•ื™ืฉ ืœืงื•ื•ืช ืฉื™ืขืžื™ืง ื ื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืœืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ืช; ื•ื‘ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืกื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื•ื‘ืœืช ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœืขื•ืจืจ ื ื™ื›ื•ืจ ืœืืœื•, ืœืื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื ื”ื™ื. ืื ื ืฉื›ื™ืœ ืœื”ืฉืจื™ืฉ ื–ื™ืงื” ืœืชื•ืจื”, ืงื™ื™ืžืช ืชืงื•ื•ื” ืฉื ืฆืœื™ื— ืœื”ื—ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื™ืงืจ ืžื›ืœ, ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื; ื•ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื“ ืœื ืื‘ื“ื” ืืฃ ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™. ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ืœื ื ืื˜ื ื”ืœื‘ ื•ืœื ื ื—ืกืžื• ื”ืื•ื–ื ื™ื™ื, ื™ืฉื ื” ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืกื‘ื™ืจื” ืฉื’ื ื›ื™ ื™ื–ืงื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื—ื ื™ืš ืžืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืจืžื” ืฉืชื”ื; ื•ืžื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข, ืื•ืœื™ ืืฃ ื™ื›ืกื•ืฃ ืœื”ืฉืœื™ื, ื•ืœื• ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืื‘ื™ื–ืจื™ื ืœืžื™ื ื™ื”ื, ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืขืžื™ื“ื”, ืืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ื’ืžืจื ืฉื”ืคืกื™ื“ ื‘ื ืขื•ืจื™ื•.

ื ืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ื ื• ื”ืขืงืจื•ืŸ ืฉืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื”ืงืฉื™ื™ื ืฉื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื•ื”ื•ืจืืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื“ืื•ื’ ืœืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืื•ืคื™ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื›ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืžืขืจื›ืช ื ื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช: “ืจืื” ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืืชื›ื ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื™ื•ื ื™ ื”’ ืืœื•ืงื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื‘ืื™ื ืฉืžื” ืœืจืฉืชื””.

ื›ืœ ืžืืžืฅ ืœืฉื•ื•ืง ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื’ืžืจื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขื˜ื™ืคื” ืื—ืจืช, ืžืกืชื›ืŸ ื‘ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืคื ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืœื ื›ื”ืœื›ื”. ื’ืžืจื ืื™ื ื ื” ืคื™ืงื ื˜ืจื™ื”. ืื™ื ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื™ื• ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœืขืจื•ืš ืื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ืงื•ืจื™ื•ื–ื™ื; ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืจืฆื• ื‘ื›ืš. ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“, ืืœื ืฉื”ืžืืžืฅ ืืฃ ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ืœื›ื™ืฉืœื•ืŸ. ืžื™ ืฉืžื—ืคืฉื‘ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืื™ื ื˜ืœืงื˜ื•ืืœื™-ื™ืžืฆื ืžืงื•ืจื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืฉืขืฉืขื™ื. ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ, ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื™ืกื—ืฃ ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื—ื“ืจืช ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™, ืจื™ืืœื™ ื•ื›ื•’, ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“. ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ืืœื• ืฉืžื•ืจ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืคืจืคืจืื•ืช ืœื—ื›ืžื”; ืืš “ื—ื›ืžืชื ื•ื‘ื™ื ืชื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื” ื”ืœื ื”ื™ื “ื‘ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื” ืขืฆืžื. ื‘ืžื’ืข ืจืืฉื•ื ื™, ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื•ื— ื—ื•ืžืจ ื–ื”-ืžืขืจ ืœืชืจื•ืžืชื• ืœื”ื‘ื ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื- ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžืฉื•ืš ืืช ื”ืœื‘; ืืš ื•ื“ืื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืฉื‘ื•ืชื•. ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื‘ื‘ื ืงืžื ืžืชื•ืš ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืืจื‘ืขื” ืื‘ื•ืช ื ื–ื™ืงื™ืŸ, ืœื ื™ืชืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื›ืžืงื•ืจ ืœืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื™ื”ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ.

ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื™ืฉื” ื”ื ืฉืžืขืช ืœืคืจืงื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื’ืžืจื ื”ื ืœืžื“ืช ืชื”ื™ื” “ืชื•ืจืช ื—ื™ื™ื”, ื”ืžืขื•ืจื” ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื™ืชื• ื•ื—ื•ื•ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“, ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ืฉื”ื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื” ืœืื•ื–ืŸ ืงืฉื‘ืช. ืืžื ื, ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™ืช, ืฉืื™ืคืชื ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื—ื™ื•ืช ืชื‘ืฆื‘ืฅ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืžืกื›ืช. “ื›ื™ ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ืื•ืจืš ื™ืžื™ื ื•” ื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื ื’ืขื™ื ื•ืื”ืœื•ืช ื›ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื•ืฉื‘ืช. ืืš ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื” ืฉืžืกืจ “ืชื•ืจื” ืœืฉืžื”” ืžืžื ื” ื•ื”ืœืื”, ืื™ืŸ ืœื–ืœื–ืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช, ืœื ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ื”ืฆื’ืชื•. ืชืคื™ืกื” ื”ื’ื•ืจืกืช ื›ื™ ืจืง ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืžืขืฉื™ื™ื ื•ืงื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ืœืžื“ ืคืกื•ืœื” ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ, ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ืื™ื“ื™ืื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ื”ืขืงืจื•ื ื™ืช; ื•ืœืฉื ืฉืœื™ืœืชื”, ื™ืฉ ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ื•ืจืืช ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื” ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ื ื˜ื•ืœื™ ื–ื™ืงื” ืœืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ื-ื™ื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“. ืžืื™ื“ืš, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื‘ืงื‘ื™ืขืช ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื•ืžื™ื ื•ืŸ ืžื—ื•ื‘ืชื ื• ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืงื™ื•ืžื™. ื‘ืจื, ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ืขืฉื•ืช ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืงืคื“ื ื™ืช ืขืœ ืื•ืคื™ื™ื” ื”ื ื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืžืฉื ื” ื•ื’ืžืจื ื›ืื—ื“; ื•ืืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืœืื•ืคื™ ื–ื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื˜ืคื—.

ื”ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื›ืืŸ ืื™ื ื”, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื—ื“ืฉื”. ื‘ืื•ืจื— ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืืžืช ืืช ื”ืชืคื™ืกื•ืช ืฉื”ืขืœื•, ื‘ืฉืขืชื, ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื•; ื•ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช, ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื•ืช. ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืžืขืžื“ ืฉื”ืขื ื™ืง ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืžืฉื ื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ-ืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ื ืคื“ื’ื•ื’ื™ื™ื- ื‘ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืฆืขื™ืจ ืื™ื ื• ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืœื”ืชืขืจื•ืช ื‘ื’ืžืจื, ื•ืžืชื•ืš ื›ืš ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื”ืงื‘ื•ืข ื‘ืื‘ื•ืช, “ื‘ืŸ ื—ืžืฉ ืœืžืงืจื ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ืœืžืฉื ื” ื‘ืŸ ื—ืžืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืœื’ืžืจื”- ืžื‘ื™ืข ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ื—ืฉืฉ ืฉื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ืขื™ื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืชื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืคื•ืจืฉ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ืฆืขื™ืจ ืœืœื ืžื˜ืขืŸ ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ืจืฆื™ื ื™:

“ื•ืื– ื™ืขืกื•ืง ื‘’ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช’, ื•ืžื™ ื™ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื”ืขื™ืงืจ ื•ืœื ื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช. ื•ืขื•ื“ ื™ืขืœื” ื‘ืกื•ืœื ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ื‘ืžืฉืืช ืฉื•ื•ื, ื™ื’ื™ืข ืœืจื™ืง ื›ื•ื—ื•, ื•ื™ื›ืœื• ื‘ื”ื‘ืœ ื™ืžื™ื”ื ื•ืฉื ื•ืชื ื‘ื‘ื”ืœื”, ืœืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืคืœืคื•ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ืœ, ืœื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืคื ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœื ื›ืŸ, ืื•ืกืฃ ืจื•ื— ื‘ื—ื•ืคื ื™ื•, ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืœืจื•ื— ืฉืงืจ ื‘ืคื™ื•, ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ื•ื”ื’ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ืœืื™ืฉื”, ืื– ื”ื•ืฉืœืš ืžืฉืžื™ื ืืจืฅ, ื•ื ื“ืžื” ืœื• ื›ืื™ืœื• ื—ืœื ื—ืœื•ื ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื•, ื™ืคืจื•ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืœื’ืžืจื™, ืœื ื™ืฉื ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืžืื•ืžื”, ืœื ืžืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืฉื ื” ื•ืœื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืœื ื“ืจืš ืืจืฅ” (ื’ื•ืจ ืืจื™ื”, ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•,ื–).

ื•ื”ื•ื ืืฃ ืžืขื ื™ืง ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ืžืฉื ื” ืคืŸ ื—ืฆื™-ืžื™ืกื˜ื™:

“ื–ื”ื• ื”ื ื”ื’ืช ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืฉืคืœ ื•ืคื—ื•ืช, ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื“ืจื›ื™ ืขืงืœืงืœื•ืช, ื•ืžืคืกื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืœืžืฉื ื”, ื›ืžื• ืฉืืžืจื• ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ, “ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืชื›ื ืกื•ืช ืืœื ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืช, ืฉื ืืžืจ’ื’ื ื›ื™ ื™ืชื ื• ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื ืขืชื” ืืงื‘ืฆื'”. ื•ืœืžื” ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืช? ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืืฉืจ ื“ื‘ืจื ื•, ื›ื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื ืฆื•ืจืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื‘ื›ืŸ ืคื™ื–ื•ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ื•ื—ืก ืœืฉืœื ืชืžืฆื ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ืžืฉื ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“, ื•ื™ื—ื•ื™ื‘ ื’ื ื›ืŸ ืฉื‘ืœืžื“ื ื”ืžืฉื ื”, ืฉื‘ื” ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืกื“ืจ ื”ื“ื™ื ื™ื ื™ื—ื“. ืœื ื›ืŸ ื”ืคืœืคื•ืœ ืฉืœืคืขืžื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืฉื ื•ืžืชืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ, ื›ื™ื“ื•ืข”.(ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืชืฉื›”ื“, ืขืžื•ื“ ืžื“).

ื“ืขืชื• ื”ื›ื•ืœืœืช ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืฆืขื™ืจ ื›ืฉื™ืจ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ืžืจื ืœื ื ืชืงื‘ืœื” ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช- ื•ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช. ืืš ืœื—ืจื“ื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฉืœื›ื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื–ื ื—ืช ื”ืžืฉื ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื, ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื.

ย ืขื ื–ืืช, ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืžืกืคืจ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช. ื”ืจื•ืฉื ื”ืžืชืงื‘ืœ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ื”ื™ื ื• ืฉื”ืจืคื•ืจืžื” ื”ืžื•ืฆืขืช ืืžื•ืจื” ืœื™ื”ืคืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืจืžื”, ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ื”ืชืžืงื“ื•ืช ื‘ื’ืžืจื ืœืื•ืจืš ื–ืžืŸ ืชื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื•ืจื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ื ื‘ื—ืจืช. ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ืืช, ื”ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ืžื•ืฆืข ื›ืืŸ ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ-ืžืŸ ื”ืกืชื, ืืฃ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื- ื‘ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ืงื™ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืฉืœืขืฆืžื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืงื™ืฃ ืžื–ื” ืฉืฉืจืจ ื‘ืคืจืื’ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืฉื‘ืข-ืขืฉืจื”, ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื™ื•ืขื“ ืœืืœื” ืฉื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ ืื™ื ื• ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืžืชืื™ื ืœื”ื, ืื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ืžื•ื˜ื™ื‘ืฆื™ื”. ืฉื ื™ืช, ืžืฉืชืžืข ืฉืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื›ืจื™ืข ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ื ื˜ื” ืœื”ืกืชืคืง ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืฉื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื•ืœื ื‘ื˜ืงืกื˜), ื•ืœื ื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื—ืฉื™ืคื” ืœื’ืžืจื ืฉื”ื•ื“ื’ืฉื” ืœืขื™ืœ. ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืขืจ ืฉืฉืชื™ ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื ืขื•ืฆื•ืช ื‘ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™: ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ืฉื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืช ื•ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืฉื”ื›ื™ืจ ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ืœืขื•ืžืช ื‘ืช-ื–ืžื ื ื•. ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื›ื•ืœื” ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ ืงื•ื“ืฉ, ืืฃ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื‘ืจืžืช ืžืฉื ื” ื”ื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ, ืžืคืืช ื”ื™ืงืคื•, ืœืกืคืง ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืžื–ื•ืจ ื”ื ืคืฉื™ ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข. ืœื ื›ืŸ ื‘ืžืขืจืš ืžืคื•ืฆืœ, ื‘ื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ืชืžืกืจื•ืช ืœืžืฉื ื” ืžื ื™ื‘ื” ื”ืกืคืง ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœ- ื•ืžืžื™ืœื, ืชื‘ืงืฉ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ืžืจื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฉืœื™ื. ื•ืขืœ ื”ื›ืœ, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืžืจื—ืฃ ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ืฆื•ื™ื™ืŸ- ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช, ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฉืชืžืข ืžื›ืš. ื”ืžื”ืจ”ืœ ื ืื‘ืง ืขืœ ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“- ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื•ืžื‘ื ื” ื‘ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื”ื—ื ื™ืš ื‘ืชื•ืจื”; ื•ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช, ืขืœ ื”ืขืžืงืช ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื“ืจืš ืืจืฅ. ื”ื•ื ืœื ื—ืฉืฉ ืœืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ืช; ื•ืžื›ืืŸ, ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืขืฆืžื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืคืืช ื”ื”ื™ืฉื’ื™ื ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื’ืจื™ื“ื. ื‘ื“ื•ืจ ื‘ื• ื”ื—ืฉืฉ ืœื–ื™ืงื” ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ืช ืžืงื ืŸ ืœืขื•ืžืง ื•ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžื”, ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™. ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืชื›ื ื™ืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ื‘ืกื™ื›ื•ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืงื•ืœ ื‘ืคืœืก ื”ืชืจื•ืžื” ื”ืกื’ื•ืœื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืฉื ื” ืžื›ืืŸ, ื•ืฉืœ ื’ืžืจื ืžื›ืืŸ, ืœื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ืื™ืฉื™ื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ื“ ื”’.

ื”ืงืฉื™ื™ื ื”ื›ืจื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืฆืข ื‘ืจื•ืจื™ื. ื›ืœ ืคื™ืฆื•ืœ ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืช ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืžืขื•ืจืจ, ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืชืงืฆื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื“ืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช. ืฉืืœื•ืช ืžื”ื•ืชื™ื•ืช: ืขืœ ืื™ื–ื” ื‘ืกื™ืก ื™ืชื‘ืฆืข ื•ืœืคื™ ืื™ื–ื• ืžืกื’ืจืช. ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืขืจื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืžื•ืกื“ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ื•ืžื•ื’ื ื™ื™ื? ืžืื™ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœ ื™ื•ื ื”ื’ ืกื™ื•ื•ื’, ื•ื”ืื ืœืคื™ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ืงื‘ื™ืขื”? ืžื” ื™ื”ื™ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ืก ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช? ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืœื™ื‘ื• ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ ื•ื”ืงื™ื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืขืจืš ื”ืชื•ืจื ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“. ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื•ืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืขืœ ืคื”, ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื—ืฉืฉื•ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ื™ื, ื”ืžื•ืกืจื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืชื™ื™ื- ืื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื”ืชื ืฉืื•ืช ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ื“ื™ืžื•ื™ ืขืฆืžื™ ืฉืœื™ืœื™ ืžื›ืืŸ, ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ืจื™ื›ื•ื– ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ื”ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืคื—ื•ืช ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ืช ืœื—ื™ื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืฆื•ื•ืช. ื•ื›ื›ืœ ื”ืฆืขืช ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื, ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื” ื‘ื”ืกืชื’ืœื•ืช ืœืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื‘ื“ื™ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืจื•ื•ื™ื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืงื•ืจื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื›ื ื™ืขื” ืœื”, ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืฆืขืช ืžืŸ ื”ืกืชื ืชืžืฉื•ืš ืœื ืจืง ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ื” ืœื•ืžื“ ืคื—ื•ืช, ืืœื ืืฃ ื›ื–ื” ืฉืืœืžืœื ืงื™ื•ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื ืจืชื ืœืžืืžืฅ ื™ืชืจ.

ืœืงืฉื™ื™ื ืืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขืจื™ื, ื•ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื™ืขืจืš ื‘ื”ืชืื. ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ, ื™ืฉ ืœื’ื‘ืฉ ื”ืชื›ื ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืขืจื•ืฅ ื”ืžืฉื ื” ืœื ื™ื™ื‘ื ื” ื•ืœื ื™ื™ืชืคืก ื›ื—ื™ื™ื ืงืœื™ื ื—ืกืจื™ ืžืขื•ืฃ, ืืœื ื›ืืชื’ืจ ืžืกื•ื’ ืื—ืจ. ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืคื—ื™ืช ื‘ื• ืืช ืžืกืคืจ ื”ืฉืขื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœืฆืžืฆื ืืช ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช. ืœื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืขืœ- ืืš ืœื ืœื›ื•ืคืฃ ืืช ืจืฃ ื”ืฉืื™ืคื”. ื‘ืจื, ืขื™ืงืจ ื”ืงื•ืฉื™, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ืคื•ืงื“ ืจืืฉื™ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืžื—ื ื›ื™ื ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืืฉืจ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื, ืงืฉื•ืจ ื‘ืฉื—ื™ืงืช ืžืขืžื“ ื•ื ื™ืคื•ืฅ ืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช. ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื›ืจืกื•ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ื‘ื™ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื›ืจื•ืš ื‘ืกื˜ื™ื™ื” ืžืชื›ื ื™ืช ืžื•ื›ืจ, ืžืงื ืŸ ื”ื—ืฉืฉ ืœืื‘ื“ืŸ ื–ื”ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ืคืช ื›ืžืกื’ืจืช ืชื•ืจื ื™ืช ืจืฆื™ื ื™ืช. ื‘ืžื™ื“ื”, ื™ืฉ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื” ืืฃ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื“ืชื™ื™ื, ื ื˜ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ื‘ืชื™ื•ืช. ืืš ื”ื•ื ืคื•ื’ืข ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืื‘ืงื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื›ืจื” ืœืกื™ื•ื•ื’ ื›ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื”.

ื”ืชื•ืคืขื” ืžื•ื›ืจืช. ื”ื—ืจื“ื” ืœืžืขืžื“ ื•ืœื™ื•ืงืจื”, ืžืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืฉืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืขืฆืžื™ ื›ืื—ื“, ื”ื ื” ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ื•ืขืชื™ืงืช ื™ืžื™ื. ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืงื‘ืœ ืขืœื™ื”, ื‘ืชืงื™ืคื•ืช ื”ืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื™ืช, ืจ’ ืืคืจื™ื™ื ืœื•ื ื˜ืฉื™ืฅ, ื‘ืขืœ “ืขื•ืœืœื•ืช ืืคืจื™ื”:”ื•ืขื ื—ื›ืžื™ ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืœื™ ื•ื™ื›ื•ื— ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื™ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื”ืคืœืคื•ืœ ืฉืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื—ื™ืœื•ืง, ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืœืชื™ ืœื ืฆื—ื. ื•ื”ืกื‘ื” ืœื–ื” ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืžื” ื”ืจื•ื“ืคื™ื ืื—ืจื™ ื™ื•ืชืจืช ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื•ื”ืฉืจืจื” ื•ื”ื—ืคืฆื™ื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืชื—ื›ืžื•ื ื™ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื: ืืœืžืœื ืคืœืคื•ืœ ื–ื” ืžื” ื’ื‘ืจ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ, ื•ื˜ื•ืขื ื™ื ืขื•ื“ ืžืžื” ืฉืจื•ืื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืฉ ืฉื›ืœ ื”ื ืขืฉื” ืžื—ื•ื“ื“ ืขืœ ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”… ื•ืชื•ืคืฉื™ ื”ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืขืฆืžื, ื›ื™ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ืขื ื”ื“ืจืช ืžืœืš, ื•ื™ืชืงื‘ืฆื• ืืœื™ื• ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™ื, ื•ื’ื ืคืกื•ืœืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ, ื•ื™ืฆื‘ืจื• ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื, ื”ืœืœื• ืฉื•ืชืงื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžืงืจืงืจื™ืŸ. ื”ื™ื™ื˜ื‘ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ื”’ ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื›ื–ื”?” (“ืขืžื•ื“ื™ ืฉืฉ” ื•ืจืฉื” ืชืจืœ”ื”, ืขืžื•ื“ ืกื‘.).

ืชืฉื•ื‘ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ืฉืืœื” ื”ืจื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื‘ืจื•ืจื”; ื•ื“ื•ืŸ ืžื™ื ื” ื•ืื•ืงื™ ื‘ืืชืจื”.

ื”ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจืช ื ืฉืžืขืช ื ื•ืงื‘ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื ื ื™ ื‘ื ื—ืœื™ืœื”, ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ, ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื›ืชื‘ื, ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืขื•ืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ืช ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืžืกื™ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื›ื™ื•ื. ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืžื–ื•, ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœื ื•, ื™ืฉ ืžืงื•ื ืœื’ืœื•ืช ื”ื‘ื ื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช ืœืชื•ืคืขื”. ืืžื ื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืžืืžืฅืชื›ื ื™ืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ืขื• ืฉืื™ื ื” ืžืชืื™ืžื” ืœืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื•, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื•ืฉืฉ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฆื˜ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืขืžื™ืชื™ื•, ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ “ืœื ืชื’ื•ืจื• ืžืคื ื™ ืื™ืฉ”, ื•ืขืชื™ื“ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื›ืš. ืืš ืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืฉืงืฃ ื—ืฉืฉ ื–ื” ื™ื•ืžืจื ื•ืช ืฆืจื•ืคื”, ื•ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืŸ ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ื•ืขืจื›ื™. ื”ื’ื“ืจืช ืžื•ืกื“, ื•ืœื• ืžืจืžื” ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืงืช ืชื•ื•ื™ืช, ืžืฉืคื™ืขื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืชืจื—ืฉ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืœื™ื•-ืขืœ ืฉืื™ืคื•ืช ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื”ื; ืขืœ ืืžื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื“ื” ื”ื‘ื•ื—ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ืฉื’ ืื• ื›ื™ืฉืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื”, ื‘ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื™ื“ื•ืช; ืขืœ ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจื” ื”ืฉื•ืจืจืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ื›ื. ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ, ืœืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžื•ืกืจื™ืช ื•ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืช ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ื•ืืžื™ืฆื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ืชื•ื ื™ื, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืฉืืžื ื ื˜ื•ื‘ืช ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืฆืจื›ื™ื”ื ื”ืจื•ื—ื ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื”ืงื•ื‘ืขื™ื. ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื–ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื’ื“ืจืช ื‘ื›ืžื” ืื•ืคื ื™ื, ื•ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืคื™ืกื” ื”ื˜ื•ืขื ืช ืฉืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื‘ื—ื ื” ืœื˜ื•ื•ื— ืืจื•ืš, ื•ื‘ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืฆืจื›ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื™ื, ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ื. ืืš ื”ืขื™ืงืจื•ืŸ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ; ื•ื™ืฉ ืœืงื•ื•ืช ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ืช ืฉืžื™ื ืœืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ื™ืฉืืคื• ืœื™ื™ืฉืžื• ื‘ื ืืžื ื•ืช.

ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื—ืœืง ืžืงื•ืจืื™, ื›ืœ ื”ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืŸ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ; ื•ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ื•ืจื ื”ืžืืžืจ ืืฃ ื™ื™ืชืคืก ื›ืืคืจื•ืจื™ ื•ืฉืžืจื ื™ ืžื“ื™. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื—ืจื™ื, ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ืชืงื‘ืœื• ื›ืขืจืขื•ืจ ืขืœ ืžื•ืจืฉืช ืขื•ืœื ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ื•ื™ืขื•ืจืจื• ืกืœื™ื“ื” ื•ืจืชื™ืขื”. ื‘ืจื, ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืชื™, ืื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืœื”ื–ื“ื”ื•ืช ืขื ืžื—ื ื” ื–ื” ืื• ื™ืจื™ื‘ื•, ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ืœื ืœืืžืฅ ืžืขืžื“ ืฉื™ืคื•ื˜ื™. ืžื™ ืื ื™ ืฉืืขื ื™ืง ืฆื™ื•ื ื™ื ืœืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ื ืขื ืืชื’ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื™ื ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืจืฆื™ื ื™ื™ื? ื›ืœ ืžื’ืžืชื™ ื”ื ื” ืœื”ื‘ื™ืข, ืœืื•ืจ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ื• ื”ืžืฆื˜ื‘ืจ ืฉืœ ืžืฉืงื™ืฃ ืื•ื”ื“, ื›ืื‘ ื—ืจื“ื” ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื—ืœืง ืžืŸ ื”ืžืชืจื—ืฉ; ื•ืœืฆื™ื“ื, ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื•ืฆืคื™ื” ืฉืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ื–ื” ื™ื•ื‘ืœ ืฉื ื™ื ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœืžืขืŸ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืชื•ืจื ื™ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื•ื‘ืชืคื•ืฆื•ืช, ืชืฉื›ื™ืœ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื“ืจื›ื™ื” ื•ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืชื™ื”, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืชืจื•ื ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื”ืื“ื™ืจื”.